Sunday, 27 May 2012

PROJECT: ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF DISPARITY BETWEEN HND AND BACHELOR’S DEGREE GRADUATES IN THE LABOUR MARKET – BAUCHI EMPLOYERS’ VIEW



ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF DISPARITY BETWEEN HND AND BACHELOR’S DEGREE GRADUATES IN THE LABOUR MARKET – BAUCHI EMPLOYERS’ VIEW




BY


SUNDAY HABILA
FPTB/SBS/OTM/08/74779

AND

BASHIR ADAMU MOHAMMED  
                                                           FPTB/SBS/OTM/07/61128


A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, SCHOOL OF BUSINESS STUDIES, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI



                      


        NOVEMBER, 2010




CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project work was written by us and all the references made were acknowledged to the best of our knowledge.

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            SUNDAY HABILA                                                         Date
       FPTB/SBS/OTM/08/74779


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   BASHIR ADAMU MOHAMMED                                        Date
           FPTB/SBS/OTM/07/61128






       


DEDICATION
We dedicate this project work to the Almighty God, who saw us through the academic pursuit, from the beginning to the end of this programme.





APPROVAL PAGE
                This is to certify that the undersigned have read and approved this project work titled “Analysis of the causes of disparity between HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market” on behalf of the Department of Office Technology and Management. 



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        Mrs. Helen T. Irorakpor                                   Date
           (Project Supervisor)


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       Mrs Helen T. Irorakpor                                     Date
         Head of Department


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         Mrs Lois Gotip                                                 Date
       External Examiner                                                                                          


Tables of content removed.........................................................
 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
                We are most grateful to God Almighty for his great protection and favour while running the programme.
                Our thanks also go to our Supervisor, Mrs Helen T. Irorakpor for her patience, understanding and readiness to assist by sparing her time despite her tight schedules to guide us through to the success of this research work.
                Our profound gratitude also goes to our parents Mr and Mrs Habila Karemu and Mr and Mrs Adamu Mohammed for their indelible parental advice and financial support while running this programme may God bless them in return.
                We are also indebted to appreciate the instructional advice received from the entire staff of the Department of Office Technology and Management:  Mr C.N Leka, Mrs Arikwandu Sympathy, Ms Cecilia Ifesi, Mr Dajur C.I.K., Mr Sulaiman Mohammed, Mr Asogwa Sylvester, Elder Okoro Frank, Mrs Khadijat, Mrs Nwanneka and once more our Supervisor Mrs Helen T. Irorakpor, may God reward them all in abundance and to our classmates who might have helped in one way or the other may they be rewarded in return.



ABSTRACT
The topic of the research project is the “analysis of the causes of disparity between HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market.”  The methods used for the study and sources of information obtained were questionnaires, journals, textbooks and internet materials.  The data was presented and analyzed using simple percentage and some findings also were discussed.  The research was concluded and summary of the findings were discussed. It was recommended among others that the academic staff of the polytechnics should include more of Ph. D. and professors. Also, research-based courses such as medicine, pharmacy, etc should be introduced into the polytechnic academic environment. In addition it was recommended that seminars, workshops and refreshers courses should be arranged for the polytechnic academic staff so as to improve their professional knowledge and pedagogical techniques.





CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Background of the Study
Disparity may happen when people are treated unfairly because they are seen as being different from others (Deitch and Farooq, 2003).  Disparity can also be seen as a variable of discrimination in which case one is treated with superiority over the other.
Polytechnics and Universities are producers of HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates respectively.  In the Nigerian context, Polytechnics are post-secondary institutions designed to produce career-ready graduates who combine practical competence with theoretical understanding.  The broad definition of polytechnic according to Farooq (2010) “is an institution that teaches both academic and vocational subjects, with focus on applied education for work and root concentrated on engineering and applied science.  Polytechnic education is a system of education introduced by the government that emphasizes the need to acquire practical training and technological know-how.  Universities on the other hand, are said to be institutions designed to produce graduates or products of theoretical understanding and competence.  Universities are theoretically-based.
The products or graduates (students who have finished studies at the University or Polytechnic in a particular academic field) from these two educational system are all vital to the wider process of societal change that underpin economic reform and which is needed in its own right.
Polytechnics are designed to produce middle-level manpower, which is National Diploma and high-level technical manpower (HND); and the high-level technical manpower is equivalent to the high-level managerial manpower (Bachelor’s Degree) produced by the Universities.
Nigerian HND (Higher National Diploma) is a five years academic study with practical, 2 years of ND with project report submitted – one year practical (placement) then two years HND with thesis.
Bachelor’s Degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course that generally lasts for four/five years.
Bachelor’s Degree is usually academic degree segregation between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates in terms of employment and job prospects in the labour market such that HND holders are not given equal opportunities with their University counterparts.
Labour market functions through the interaction of suppliers of labour services (workers) and demanders of labour services (employers).  Labour in economics, refers to all human efforts, physical and/or mental, skilled or unskilled used in the production of goods and services.  The reward of labour is called wages or salaries.
According to Aderinto, et al (2006), “A labour market is any institution or arrangement which brings job seekers and employers of labour together within a particular geographical region”.  In other words, labour market is a market for the supply of and demand for labour.  The supply of labour is based on the assumption that workers are willing to offer more units of labour at higher wages vice versa.  Demand for labour can be defined as the number of units of labour that employers would require at a varying wage rates.
Lawan (2006), identified that so many HND holders have contributed very meaningfully to the development of Nigeria but the discrimination that is put on them places some kind of disadvantage not only on the holders but on the country as well.
Vocational and Technical Education, say analysts, has been identified as the bedrock of the nation’s technological and industrial take off which the nation badly craves for and any policy that discriminates against the products of such technical education is simply a misdirected one.
2.2       Statement of the Problem
There has been a bitter dichotomy that has pitched HND graduates against their more favoured graduates from Universities and made the HND graduates subjects of discrimination in promotion and job prospects.
It is also disheartening to state that HND holders in Nigeria are still being statutorily and financially indignified in that HND holders are not at par with B.Sc. or B.A. holders in most ministries and parastatals, especially at job progression where HND holders are placed on the ceiling of Salary Grade Level 13 while their University counterpart can go as high as to the peak.  In the same vein, HND holders cannot rise to the level of Permanent Secretary unless he/she has acquired Post Graduate Diploma, if not he/she can only mount to the level of a Director and cannot go beyond that till retirement.
It is also a national shame to echo that Nigeria Universities don’t accept HND as one of the entry qualification into Master’s Degree, unless it is backed up by Post Graduate Diploma while First Degree is accepted for direct entry to study Master’s Degree Programmes.
2.3       Significance of the Study
This research work would help the government of Nigeria to appreciate the role of Vocational and Technological Education (VTE) to the technological advancement and development of its country.  This will further help the government to work out strategies in removal of the existing undue dichotomy in the conditions of appointment/service of the holders of HND and First Degree rather than passing obnoxious policy in discrimination of the HND holders.
Similarly, it would be of immense importance by bringing to the understanding of employers of labour, NUC, NDE, NBTE, FME and State Ministries of Education that they have a role to play in this issue by revisiting the issue to bring to its grave the disparity between the products of the two sub-sectors of education (Polytechnic and University) as they both have vital roles to play in uplifting Nigeria.
Finally, this research work would serve as an archive for reference to future researchers of a similar problem.
2.4       Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the causes of disparity between HND/bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market – Bauchi employers’ view.
Specifically, this study is designed to:
(a)    Find out employers’ evaluation of the performance of HND holders and Bachelor’s degree graduates at work.
(b)   Ascertain employers’ view of the causes of disparity between HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates.
(c)    Verify employers’ view of the possible lasting solutions to this undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates.
2.5       Research Questions
The following research questions would guide the study:
(a)    What are the employers’ evaluations of the HND holders’ and Bachelor’s degree graduates’ performances at work?
(b)   What are the causes of disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
(c)    What are the possible lasting solutions to this undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
2.6       Delimitation of the Study
This study is limited to employers within Bauchi.
2.7       Limitations
It is said, “Every coin has two sides – the bad side and the good side.” This project work is no exception.  Some problems were encountered among which was insufficient source materials for comparative purpose and elaboration.
It is also certain that money answers everything.  Lack of finance was no doubt a limited resource to this research work especially during visitation to the internet to check for up-to-date information on the problem.
2.8       Definition of Terms
Graduates – students who have finished studies at the University or Polytechnic in a particular academic field.
Labour – is a measure of the work done by human beings (in economics)
Labour Market – market for the supply of and demand for human resources in relation to a particular industry, area; or economy.
Bachelor’s Degree – is an academic award granted after successful completion of usually a four-year programme of study.
Master’s Degree – is generally a three year degree programme that can be earned following a Bachelor’s degree or Post-Graduate Diploma, which can then be followed by Doctorate Degree.
Doctorates – are the highest degrees conferred by Universities after completion of an undergraduate degree programme and usually of a Master’s degree programme.
Higher Education – is a study beyond the level of secondary education
Higher National Diploma – is an academic diploma awarded after five years of study (2 years of Ordinary National Diploma, 1 year of Post Internship and 2 years of HND), equivalent to First Degree.
Training – is defined as instruction and practice skills, together with the required level of education and responsible experience.
Study – is reading, understanding and retaining for future recall.
Profession – is an occupation coupled with high education, with a body regulating the standards of those persons and incorporating them into the profession with a designatory title or letter after or before their names.


CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature Review    
2.1       Introduction
This chapter as the literature review will discuss the following related topics under study:
1.      Education defined
2.      Brief history of vocational/technical education
3.      Meaning of technical and vocational education
4.      Role of technical education
5.      Skill defined
6.      Categories of Skilled Technical Manpower
7.      The Aims of Technical Education
8.      Higher National Diploma
9.      HND Grading system/level of performance
10.  Conditions for the award of HND
11.  Advantage of Higher National Diploma
12.  Some common Academic Diplomas and their Abbreviations
13.   Importance of Science and Technology in National Development
14.   Brief History of Bachelor’s Degree
15.    Bachelor’s Degree
16.    Classification of Bachelor’s Degree
17.     Vocational Bachelor’s Degree
18.    Non-vocational Bachelor’s Degree
19.    Reasons for Taking Bachelor’s Degree
20.    Role of Universities in Modern Society
21.    Bachelor’s Degree Grading SystemiHH
22.     Conditions for the award of Bachelor’s Degree
23.     Post Graduate Diploma
24.     Master’ Degree
25.     Reasons for Taking Master’s Degree
26.     Requirements for Master’s Degree
27.     Effects of Discrimination on workers.
2.2       Education Defined
Education is a discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and living in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various non formal and informal means of socialization (e.g. rural development projects and education through parent-child relationship.
Education can be thought of as the values and accumulated knowledge of a society.  In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists termed socialization or enculturation (Abubakar, 2010).
Education embraces all actions and influences directed to developing  and cultivating a person’s mental abilities,  knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in such a way that the individual’s personality is developed to fullest possible extent, so as to be of positive value to the society in which he lives (UNESCO in Inwang, 2000).  Education is a life long process.  Therefore, there is no age limit for education.  No one can at any stage say that he had acquired all the education needed for life.  Everyone continues to learn from cradle to the grave (Inwang, 2000).
UNESCO (1985) defines education as the know-how and creative processes that may assist people to utilise tools, resources and systems to solve problems and to enhance control over the natural and made environment in an endeavour to improve the human condition.
Enoch (2010) says education is to install the dignity of a person.


2.3       History of Vocational/Technical Education
Vocational education is an instruction intended to equip persons for industrial or commercial occupations.  It may be obtained either formally in trade schools, technical secondary schools, or in on-the-job training programmes or, more informally, by picking up the necessary skills on the job.
Vocational education in schools is a relatively, modern development.  Until the 19th century such education, except for the profession, was provided only by apprenticeship.  This situation was partly due to the low social status associated with such instruction as opposed to a classical curriculum, which was considered “necessary for a gentleman.”  With the growth of industrialization during the 19th century, however, several European countries, notably Germany, began introducing vocational education in elementary and secondary schools.  In Great Britain, however, opposition to vocational education persisted into the 20th century, although a few trade and junior technical schools were established by local authorities before World War II.
By the late 19th century, public (Common) School vocational education in the United States consisted of manual training and practical arts.  These programmes were gradually expanded until 1917 when Federal Aid was provided to public schools for trade and industrial, agricultural, and homemaking courses.
After World War II the demand for trained paraprofessionals in the relatively new fields of computer science, electronics, and medical services let to an increased interest in short-term post secondary specialized training programmes in these areas as an alternative to a traditional college education (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007).
2.4       The Meaning of Technical and Vocational Education
According to Inwang (2000)  Technical and vocational education can not be properly dealt with without first considering general education because the former is rightly a part and component of the latter.  Some people regard education as the ability to read, write and calculate.  But it is certainly much more than that; it is more than the preparation and training given to enable a person to acquire a skill and competency in any given field or trade.  Education involves the training of the whole individual so that he will be able not only to read, write, calculate and be competent in a given job, but also to be prepared and filled for living in society and to contribute to its general development.
Technical and vocational education refers to the educational process involving the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills and knowledge relating occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.  The term technical education is sometimes used to embrace vocational education, but in its restricted sense technical education deals with the preparation of technicians and middle management personnel and higher technicians or technologists.  In Nigeria, technicians and technologies are trained in polytechnics and similar institutions.  Vocational education on the other hand is designed to prepare skilled persons, that is, craftsmen and equivalent grades.  Vocational education is usually provided in the upper secondary levels or in special institutions of equivalent status. Here in Nigeria, vocational institutions where craftsmen are trained are called technical colleges.
2.5       Role of Technical Education
According to Abubakar (2010) Technical education is that aspect of education that gives its recipients an opportunity to acquire practical skills as well as some basic scientific knowledge.  It also involves the acquisition of skills and competence that can help individuals to function productively in industries and commercial occupations.  According to the National Policy on Education (2004), technology education aims to train and impart the necessary skills leading to the production of skilled craftsmen and personnel who will be enterprising, self-reliant and intelligent to understand the increasing complexity of technology. 
Similarly, vocational and technical education programme is concerned with skills acquisition.  These skills are learnt through teaching theory and practical of the subject in the workshop.  Practical lessons are given very high attention.  Practical projects given to students in providing definite article or projects using simple hand tools or machine tools (Yalams, 2001).
Ordinarily, the acquisition of skills involves imitation, repetition and occupational participation.  Hammed (2001) stated the importance of skills acquisition to society as:
(a)    Young persons acquire skills that provide them with financial and psychological security.  Since they can thereafter work as trained craftsmen.
(b)   Society receives continuous supplies of skilled labour and quality goods.
Similarly, Idi (1998) observed that to have appropriate skills is to get a job, to keep a job, to improve on the job, to get better and to believe in the job.  He added that acquisition of skills cut across the three domains of educational objectives namely: effective, cognitive, and psychomotor domains.  Thus, skill acquisition is cumbersome, tedious and time consuming.
Obsorne (1998) observed that skills acquisition is through participation in carrying out practical work and that practical work provides feedback about students learning experience which is referred to as evaluation.  Okpala, Onacha and Oyedeji (1993), stated that without evaluation there cannot be feedback, without feedback, there cannot be good knowledge of result, without knowledge of results, there cannot be systematic improvement in learning.  One of the conditions for effective teaching and learning of vocational/technical skills is feedback on knowledge of result (Enemali, 2006)
National Lecturers’ Institute Manual (2006) defines evaluation as a systematic process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which students are achieving instructional objectives.  It also refers to the value judgement about a learner’s level of performance, using different assessment instruments.
Okoro (1993) stated that the ultimate test of a good vocational education programme is not how much factual information students can remember but what technical skills they possess.  Similarly, Thornlike law of exercise cited in Garba (1996) stated that:  the more practice one has the more one learns.  This law is particularly evident in psychomotor learning.  Enemali (2006) stated that instruction has not practical value unless the learner can practise the learnt skills.  The integration of theory and practice sets vocational training apart from general education without applying the theory, one has not learnt to practise, and one cannot truly acquire skills.
2.6       The Aims of Technical Education
The National Policy on Education states the aims of technical education as follows:
(a)    To provide trained manpower in applied sciences, technology, and commerce, particularly at sub-professional level.
(b)   To provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.
(c)    To provide people who can apply scientific knowledge to the improvement and solution of environmental problems for the use and convenience of man.
(d)   To give an introduction to professional studies in engineering and other technologies.
(e)    To give training and impart the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self-reliant.
(f)    To enable our young men and women to have an intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology.
2.7       Skill Defined
A skill is not a reflex action.  A skill is a complex movement that requires practice to acquire psychomotor skills which are retained longer than learnt text material, because we tend to overlearn these skills.  The term skill also refers to the level of proficiency at which someone can perform a certain task.  There are three major factors that affect the acquisition of psychomotor skills which are feedback; motivation and the amount of practice undertaken.  The more specific the feedback is received, the faster the skills acquired.  Motivation serves to encourage skill acquisition often speeding up the process.  Practice may be the most powerful factor, but the effect of the amount and intensity of practice is unique to each person.  The complexity and distribution of the skills may also contribute to its acquisition.  The more complex a skill the more difficult it is to learn (Abubakar, 2010).
2.8       Categories of Skilled Technical Manpower
In the engineering industry, four categories of skilled technical manpower can be identified.  These are:  craftsmen, technicians, technologists and engineers.  It has already been stated that vocational education institutions train craftsmen while technical education institutions train technicians and technologists.  Engineers are usually trained in Universities or University level institutions.
The craftsman is that category of skilled manpower with a higher level of manual dexterity and lesser level of theoretical knowledge in a given trade or occupation.  All trades or crafts do not, however, require the same ratio of background knowledge to the manual skills.
The technician constitutes a very diverse group and is sometimes split into junior technician and higher technician.  In some countries, junior technician is referred to simply as the technician while the higher technician is called technician-engineer or technologist.  The term technician-engineer is widely used in the United Kingdom but technologist is adopted mostly in USA, Canada and some other countries including Nigeria.
The technician is therefore, one who requires knowledge and skill of a more practical character than those required by the engineer on the one hand, and of a more theoretical character than those required by the skilled worker or craftsman on the other.   The technologist has more theoretical knowledge and less practical skills than an ordinary technician, but with technical knowledge and training of a more practical nature the university trained engineer (French in Inwang, 2000).  Inwang further reiterates in his book that the contribution and input of the various manpower categories constitute a very vital link in the engineering industry and no category can claim to be more important than the other.  The different categories of technical manpower, therefore, perform complementary functions and each must be duly accorded full recognition of  its own right.
2.9       Higher National Diploma
Oxford Advance Learners’ Dictionary in the 5th edition defines HND as an academic qualification which is equivalent to BSc or B.A. This means HND is equal to Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts.  HND in Nigeria is a five years academic study with practical, two years of National Diploma with project report submitted – one year practical (placement) then two years HND with thesis. 
Higher National Diploma is best described as a two-year full-time or three-year part-time course which once completed can lead to entry to study Post Graduate Diploma.  HND courses are vocational in nature as they prepare you for careers in specific areas of industry.
A part time Higher National Diploma as the name suggests is the same HND course but spread out in a way that is more beneficial to those that can only devote part of their time to study.  Taking the HND part-time is usually best suited for those students who have social commitments, work long hours.  


2.10.1  The Entry Requirement for HND
A student who has successfully completed the ND and wishes to proceed to the HND is required to have had minimum of one year of relevant working experience (Inwang, 2000)
2.10.2  HND Grading System/Levels of Performance
According to the Grading System approved by Federal Polytechnic Bauchi in its Student’s handbook (2008); an HND candidate is determined as having in a course level of achievement graded as follows:
A         =         70 % - 100%   -           Pass
AB      =          65% - 69%      -           Pass
B         =          60% - 64%      -           Pass
BC       =          55% - 59%      -           Pass
C         =          50% - 54%      -           Pass
CD      =          45% - 49%      -           Pass
D         =          40% - 44%      -           Pass
F          =          0%-39%          -           Fail     
The performance of an HND student in a course is reckoned by awarding credit point in respect of the grade obtained in that course such that:
A         =          4.00     Credit  Points
AB      =          3.50     Credit  Points
B         =          3.00     Credit  Points
BC       =          2.50     Credit  Points
C         =          2.00     Credit  Points
CD      =          1.50     Credit  Points
D         =          1.00     Credit  Points
F          =          0.00     Credit Points
The Weighted Grade Point (WGP) attained by an HND student in a particular course is the credit point attained in that course multiplied by the number of credit units attached to the course.
The overall performance of an HND student during an entire semester is determined by means of a Weighted Grade Point Average (GPA) obtained as a sum of the Weighted Grade Points of the students (from the set of courses) divided by the total number of units contained in the set of courses concerned.
2.10.3    Conditions for the Award of HND
To earn HND the following conditions must be satisfied:
a.       All prescribed subjects (except those condoned as a result of transfer) must be taken and passed.
b.      The student must have accumulated the required minimum number of credit units as specified by the polytechnic.
c.       The student must be found worthy in character and learning.
d.      The student shall satisfy any other conditions prescribed by the polytechnic.
Where an HND candidate fulfils all the requirements above, his result shall be determined using the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA), covering all courses taken during the entire academic program.  The approved classification scheme could be as follows depending on the Grading System of the Polytechnic:
CGPA
CLASS OF DIPLOMA
3.51 – 4.00
3.00 – 3.50
2.00 – 2.99
1.00 – 1.99
0.00 –1.00
DISTINCTION
Upper  Credit
Lower Credit
Pass

Fail (No Certificate)

2.10.4  Advantages of Higher National Diploma
Polytechnic education is a system of education introduced that emphasised the need to acquire practical training and technological know-how.  The following advantages are said to be associated with HND:
à        HND courses are vocational in nature as they prepare one for careers in specific areas of industry thus injecting entrepreneurial skills into individuals, hence reducing dependency ratio (level of unemployment) among youths in our nation.
à        Through IT opportunities, HND provides students with hands-on experience working in a national, non-profit organisation.  Additionally, interns gain experience working with other local and national organisations and leaders on issues that impact the nation.
à        HND is a source of technological drive of any nation.
à        It encourages HND students to acquire technical skills in sundry technical lines.  In this way, such a graduate will not become unemployable.
à        This system goes a long way to reduce unemployment in our country.  The rate of unemployment among University graduates is very alarming.  If the young graduates had learnt a trade or acquired a technical skill such a skill would have been able to keep them going even when they are unable to get white collar jobs.
à        The system will in this way make youths who are engineers, accountants, lecturers and other professionals to be more useful in the society if they can also acquire the technical knowledge and skills in bricklaying, welding, etc.
à        The system will make our youths to be good in all aspects of which we are going to have those who are interested in acquiring technical skills; some other youths will be privileged to blend their academic credentials with useful technical skills.  This development will really reduce our dependence on foreign expatriates.  You could remember, a few years ago, some Indians and Pakistanis technicians flooded the country and they were highly paid at the expense of our people.
2.10.5  Some Common Academic Diplomas and their Abbreviations
Advanced Diploma in Education – Ad DipEd
Post Graduate Diploma in Education – PGDE
National Diploma – (ND)
Higher National Diploma – (HND)
2.11     Importance of Science and Technology in National Development
The importance of science and technology in National development cannot be over-emphasized.  It is a known fact that no nation can develop without science and technology.  What is Science and Technology?  Science is the study of knowledge which can be made into a system and which depends on seeing and testing facts while technology is the practical application of scientific knowledge.  Developed nations of the world like the Soviet Union, Germany, France, U.S.A., etc boast of several scientific inventions which make them to be rated as the world powers.
Science and technology is the pivot of any nation’s development.  A nation without science and technology is definitely a backward nation.  Such nation will be considered undeveloped.   Science and technology is associated with modernity and it is an essential tool for rapid development.   Modern gadgets in all aspects of human comfort are inventions of science and technology.  Electricity, aircraft, telephone, cell phone, television, computers, and other forms of machinery could not have been invented without science and technology. 
Science and technology is also very essential in the production of medicine and treatment of diseases.  A nation which lacks the necessary science and technology in the area will have to depend on other developed nations for the existence of its people.   Such nation cannot be said to be independent because it has to depend on the whim and caprices of other nations with the necessary science and technology. The development of a nation depends solely on the amount of science and technology at the disposal of such nation.  A strong and virile nation is a nation with adequate technology to make its people comfortable.  A nation without science and technology cannot feed its people because agriculture requires the application of science and technology.
Furthermore, science and technology helps in the area of employment.  The rate of unemployment is high in Nigeria simply because many graduates of science either under-utilized or unemployed.  This is so because there is no scientific and technological development to match the number of graduates churned out of our universities every year.
Nigeria too can join other giant nations of the world if our government could spend more money on science and technology.  This is the only way the country can launch itself into limelight and world recognition as a developed nation (Tonad, 2009).
Inwang (2000) says technology involves the purposeful application of knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and products that meet human needs.  The needs and wants of people in particular communities determine the technology that is developed and how it is applied.   People judge the desirability of technological applications by their impact on health, personal well-being and lifestyle, economies and economic systems. 
2.12     Technology in the School Curriculum
According to Webster (2010) Effective technology programmes encourage students to be productive, innovative and enterprising.  This involves generating ideas and taking action, as well as developing techniques and products that satisfy human needs. 
Students learn about materials, information and systems and the processes by which they are employed.  They consider the resources, equipment and techniques that are relevant to the context in which they are working.  Students examine the context of a task or activity to determine needs and opportunities and to relate what is known to what might be done.  They make, organise and modify techniques and product and communicate their plans to others.  They appraise technologies with which they have had no direct or first-hand experience and reflect on what has been done and how it can be improved.
The process to designing making and appraising is control to technology.  It is a dynamic process where the elements of designing, making and appraising overlap or lock step sequence.


2.13     Brief History of Bachelor’s Degree
The Bachelor’s Degree is also known as “Baccalaureate” in many countries.  The word baccalaureate is a distorted version of German word “Bakkalaureus.”  The Bachelor’s degree was first awarded in Germany, but was later abolished.  The degree resurfaced in 1820, however, as part of a change in the higher education system.  A Bachelor’s degree is an undergraduate academic degree.  The name “Bachelor” was given to the degree because of the English word “Bachelor”, meaning “Young apprentice” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007).
2.13.1  Bachelor’s Degree
Bachelor’s degree is usually conferred at the completion of a four/five year programme of study.  Bachelor’s Degrees usually represent the completion of course requirements in a major field of study and frequently in minor field as well.  Bachelor’s degrees are awarded in the liberal arts and sciences, education, business, and other disciplines.  The Bachelor’s degree may be a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree, depending on the major course of study completed by the student.  For example, Chemistry major would receive a B.Sc. degree, whereas a History major would receive a B.A. degree.
A  Bachelor’s degree is a benchmark of academic attainment.  Courses with the award of B.A., BSc. B.Eng., LLB, etc are all first degrees, and many are offered on a full time or part time basis.  A full time degree normally requires study for a period of between four and five years depending on the university in question (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007).
2.13.2  Classification of Bachelor’s Degree
According to Encarta (2009) There are two kinds of Bachelor’s degree, viz: Vocational and non-vocation Bachelor’s degrees
2.13.2.1 Vocation Bachelor’s Degree
A vocational degree, for example, BSc. Nursing, B.A. Primary Education, gives eligibility for a particular career area, also giving a choice of specialization within that field, depending on the components of the course.  A vocational course does not mean you only have one career choice.   It can still be used exactly as a non-vocational degree.
2.13.2.2   Non-Vocational Bachelor’s Degree
A non-vocational degree, for example, BA History; BSc. Geography, gives access to graduate only occupations, or graduate level entry to occupations where your degree subject is not of particular relevance.  The range of options in this category can seem overwhelming and you may want help from your careers service in narrowing it down and working out your job-hunting strategies.
2.13.3    Reasons for Taking Bachelor’s Degree
A degree may be a pre-requisite for job, for instance, practising as a doctor or being a chartered accountant.  For most people the Bachelor’s degree means access to an extended career path that will more readily include management responsibilities.  It is also recognised financially in that graduates expect, and usually attract more money (Encyclopaedia, Britannica, 2007).
2.13.4   Entrance Requirement for Bachelor’s Degree
To gain entry into first degree course students will need to have the following qualifications, although it should be noted that this is simply a guide to entry and any specific questions should be directed to the university in question.  All intending applicants should have passed five subjects at “O” Level (Credit level or above) including English Language and Mathematics.  In addition, candidate must have at least pass at Vocational Advanced Level (Pass in National Diploma or its equivalent – NCE), that is in the case of Direct Entry into 200 level.  Direct entry could be at remedial level or 200 level (those who applied after successful completion of a vocational ‘A’ Level); whereas entry into the first year (100 level) of Bachelor’s degree programme is only through JAMB-UME (Currently, UTME).   A candidate who sat for JAMB and successfully got the required point of the University in question in addition to the aforementioned ‘O’ Level qualification would be offered admission, (Webster, 2010).
2.13.5   The Role of Universities in Modern Society
The traditional functions of universities are teaching and research.  In their teaching, universities provide the professional training for high-level jobs, as well as the education necessary for the development of the personality.  University research increases the body of theoretical knowledge as well as its application to practical problems.
The traditional University restricted itself mainly to a close circle of processors and students from the upper strata of society and lived in relative isolation, the proverbial “ivory tower”.  It produces the elite of the nation, and society – so to speak – had to adapt to the elite.   Research was the privilege of the professors, determined to a large extent by personal interests and their contacts among each other.
We all know of the brilliant performance of this traditional university which laid down the basis for the progress of mankind.  But too much concerned with itself, this university lost contact with society until it was completely isolated and did not understand the issues of its surroundings.  This, however, meant a reduction in performance:  the ultimate yardstick for measuring the success of a university is the improvement in the lives of the people it serves.  The full benefit from a university can be obtained only if the university and society are organically linked together.  Raised in another way, the needs of society have to be at the centre of a university’s activities, and a flexible adjustment to changing needs is necessary but lacking – more or less – all over the world (Webster, 2010).
2.13.6   Bachelor’s Degree Grading System
ATBU (2006) in its Student’s handbook approves that a candidate shall be recorded as having in a course a level of achievement graded as follows:
A         =          Excellent         70% - 100%
B         =          Very Good      60% - 69%
C         =          Good               50% - 59%
D         =          Fair                  45% - 49%
E          =          Pass                 40% - 49%
F          =          Fail                     0% -39%
The overall performance of each candidate during an entire semester is determined by means of a Weighted Grade Point Average (WGPA) obtained by awarding credit points in respect of each course multiplied by the numerical value of the grade obtained such that:
A         =          5          Credit Points per Unit
B         =          4          Credit Points per Unit
C         =          3          Credit Points per Unit
D         =          2          Credit Points per Unit
E          =          1          Credit Points per Unit
F          =          0          Credit Points per Unit
The Weighted Grade Point (or course point) obtained by a student in a particular course is the student’s grade point multiplied by the units attached to the course.
The overall performance of student during an entire semester shall be determined by means of Weighted Grade Average obtained as a sum of the Weighted Grade Points of the student (from the set of courses) divided by the total number of units contained in the set of courses.

2.13.7  Conditions for the Award of a Bachelor’s Degree
To earn a degree the following conditions must be satisfied:
        i.            All courses (except those condoned as a result of transfer) must be taken and passed.
      ii.            Industrial Training shall carry 8 credits towards assessment of the student’s final degree awards.
    iii.            The student must have accumulated the required minimum number of credit units as specified by the programme and as determined by the Board of Studies and approved by Senate.
    iv.            Students shall satisfy any other conditions prescribed by the University.
When a candidate fulfils all the requirements stated above, his degree classification shall be determined using the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA), covering all courses taken during the entire academic programme.   The approved classification scheme is as follows:


CGPA
CLASS OF DEGREE
4.50 – 5.00
3.50 – 4.49
2.40 – 3.49
1.50 – 2.39
1.00 – 1.49
0.00 – 0.99
First Class
Second Class Upper
Second Class Lower
Third Class
Pass

Fail

2.13.8  Common Academic Bachelor’s Degree and their Abbreviations
B.A. or A.B.                           Bachelors of Arts
B.B.S.                                     Bachelor of Business Science
B.C.L.                                     Bachelor of Civil Law
B.D.                                        Bachelor of Divinity
B. Lit., B. Litt., or Lit             Bachelor of Letters or Literature
C.E.                                         Civil Engineer
E.E.                                         Electrical Engineer
M.E.                                        Mechanical Engineer
Mus. B.                                   Bachelor of Music
Ph. G.                                      Graduate in Pharmacy
ST.B.                                       Bachelor of Sacred Theology
V.S.                                         Veterinary Surgeon
B.S, BSc. or Sc. B.                 Bachelor of Science
B.L.L., or L.L.B.                    Bachelor of Laws
B.Eng.                                     Bachelor of Engineering
2.14     Post Graduate Diploma
This is a 12/15 Calendar Months compulsory course for HND holders and those who graduated in the University with Pass (BSc. Or BA Pass) who are willing to study a Master’s Degree Programme in the University.  One may also take it as a prerequisite for job promotion.  It is also necessary for those Bachelor’s Degree holders at pass level to enable them go for a Master’s Degree programme (Webster, 2010).

2.15     Master’s Degree
Generally, it is a three-year second degree programme that can be earned following a Bachelors Degree or Post Graduate Diploma, which can then be followed by Doctorate Degree.  A student may pursue a Master’s Degree after a successful completion of a Bachelor’s Degree or Post Graduate Diploma.  Master’s degree programmes typically require at least one year of study to complete a specified number of graduate –level courses in a specialized field of study.  Students pursuing a Master’s Degree must usually also pass some sort of comprehensive examinations or complete a project.  Master’s degree exams may be written or oral, or a combination of both.  Many Master’s degree programmes require satisfactory completion of a written thesis.  Master’s degrees are usually Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Science (MSc.) degrees, depending on the field of specialization.  The period of full-time study required is one year and two years on a part-time basis (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007).
2.15.1  Reasons for Taking a Master’s Degree
Students often choose to do a Master’s Degree for several reasons.  The most common reasons for taking an M.A. or M.Sc. are to broaden their academic achievements, get on the career ladder of their chosen career, to fulfil their interest, or simply to avoid joining the workforce.  It is worth noting that students that do take a Master’s can broaden experiences in a subject, develop skills and broaden knowledge widen future job prospects or enable a career change.  People may also choose to do Master’s degree for any of the following reasons:
à        To make a good investment in their career
à        To take personal responsibility for career development.
à        To obtain a global focus
à        To prepare you self for “During Career” specialist changes which are becoming more and more frequent.
2.15.2  Entry Requirement for Master’s Degree Programme
All applicants for a Master’s degree must have a First Degree (at a minimum of third class level) and/or Post Graduate Diploma (as in the case of HND holders and those Bachelor’s degree holders with Pass) in any discipline.  Although some MBA, for example will require a First Degree and a number of years’ working experience.  Specific requirements will differ on the chosen course and institution.
2.15.3  Things to Consider
Each student will be allocated a supervisor who will provide frequent personal supervision and monitor the progress of your research.  Some Universities will offer in addition, two members of the faculty who are responsible for providing you with specialised techniques many students are noted as saying having a good supervisor can make all the difference.
The successful completion of a course of study is dependent on a positive commitment from both the teaching and supervisory staff and the students themselves.
2.15.4  Common Academic Master’s Degree
A.M. or M.A.              Master of Arts
MBA                           Master of Business Administration
M.C.E.                                    Master of Civil Engineering
M.S. or M.Sc.              Master of Science
M. Ed.                         Master of Education
LLM                            Master of Laws
M.S.                            Master of Surgery
MStat.                         Master of Statistics
MEcon.                       Master of Economics

2.16     EFFECTS OF DISCRIMINATION ON WORKERS
·         Loss of confidence:  Individuals who possess self-confidence feel they can meet the challenges that confront them.  They have a sense of mastery over the types of problems they might encounter.  Employees are described as having self confidence because they seek out and complete demanding tasks.
·         Loss of reputation and ego:  Employees want the esteem of others and they want to be regarded as useful, competent and important.   Employees also desire self-esteem
·         And need a good self-image.  In the workplace increased responsibility, high status and reward for contributions satisfy these needs. 
·         Low rate of turnover/productivity:  The highest motivation level involves employees striving to actualise their full potential, or become more than what they are capable of being.  They seek to attain self-fulfilment.  In workplaces employees satisfy this need by being creative and accepting challenging assignments.  On the other hand, if they are placed on inferiority complex, their capabilities to the productivity of the organisation are handicapped.
·         Demeaning of staff morale and productivity:  Moral is the mental, emotional and spiritual state of a person.  It is the spirit of the body, the spirit of an organisation or collective body.  It is the consciousness of the organisation that allows the people within it to identify with and feel as being part of the organisation.  On the contrary, when the spirit or morale of an employee is not boosted by giving him a sense of belonging, he feels isolated and can not put in his best towards the achievement of the organisation’s goal (Fox, 2009).



CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Research Methology
3.1       Introduction
This chapter describes the design of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, description of instruments used, instrument for data collection, method of data analysis and decision rule.
3.2       Design of the Study
The research design is survey research.  This design involves the use of questionnaires for employers of labour for the purpose of obtaining relevant information to analyse the causes of disparity between Higher National Diploma and Bachelor’s Degree graduates in the labour market.
3.3       Population of the Study
The population used for the study consists of about 200 employers of labour in Bauchi Metropolis.


3.4       Sample and Sampling technique
The researchers used convenient method of sampling technique and selected 45% (90) employers of labour for the study.
3.5       Description of Instruments
The instrument used is questionnaire.  The questionnaire is divided into two sections the first section contained information on the personal data of the respondents.  The personal data include:  Entry qualification, years of service, department, Salary Grade Level and Status or rank.
The second section consists of 16 item questions used to obtain relevant information from the respondents.
3.6       Instrument for Data Collection
The data collected were from two sources: the primary data and the secondary data.  The primary data consisted of the data collected from respondents through the distribution of questionnaire; whereas the secondary data were collected from articles, internet, newspapers, books and journals.  The researchers after constructing it, took it to an expert in the field of education and employment, made corrections and gave some useful suggestions to the content and construction before the questionnaire were finally administered.
3.7       Method of Data Analysis
The request was presented in a simple percentage table.  The simple percentage was used to analyse the data collected.  The general formula for computing the percentage is as follows: 
Formula     x
Where R = Number of Respondents, N = Total number of questionnaire properly filled and returned.
3.8       Decision Rule
Any response from 50% and above shall be considered accepted while any response below 50% shall be deemed rejected.



CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Data Analysis
4.1       Introduction
This chapter presents and analyzed the results of the questionnaires administered using the simple percentage method of data analysis in analysing each research questions drawn up in chapter one.
No of Questionnaires Administered
No Returned
Percentage
90
90
100%
Table 1:  Questionnaire Administration



The above table shows that 100% of the questionnaires administered were returned. Therefore, the analysis will be based on the above.
Research Question One:
What are the employers’ evaluations of HND holders and Bachelor’s degree graduates performance at work?
Question 1:  Are HND holders more practically able and capable than their University counterpart?
Table 2:  Responses on whether HND holders are more practically able and capable than their University counterpart.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
80
89%
b.
No
0
0%
c.
Not certain
10
11%

From the above table, 80 respondents representing 89% agreed that HND holders are more practically able and capable than their University counterpart, non of the respondents representing 0% disagreed that HND holders are more practically able and capable than their University counterpart, while 10 respondents representing 11% are not certain whether HND are more practically able and capable than their University counterpart.  Since Yes has the highest percentage of respondents with 89% it is accepted that HND holders are more practically able and capable than their University counterpart.
Question 2:  What would you say of the HND holders’ general conduct during and after working hours compared to their counterpart from the University?
Table 3:  Responses on the general conduct of HND during and after working hours in comparison with their counterpart from the University.

Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Ok
60
67%
b.
Partially OK
0
0%
c.
Absolutely OK
30
33%

From the above table, 60 respondents representing 67% said that the general conduct of the HND holders during and after working hours compared to their counterpart from the university is ok, none of respondents representing 0% said it is partially ok, while 30 representing 33% said it is absolutely ok.  Since OK has the highest percentage of respondents, it can then be deduced that the general conduct of the HND holders during and after working hours compared to their counterpart from the University is OK.
Question 3:  What would you say of the smartness, turnout and general bearing of HND holders in comparison with Bachelor’s degree graduates at work?
Table 4: Responses on the smartness, turnout and general bearing of HND holders in compared to Bachelor’s degree graduates at work?
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Satisfactory
77
86%
b.
Not satisfactory
1
1%
c.
Absolutely satisfactory
12
13%

From the above table, 77 respondents representing 86% said the smartness, turnout and general bearing of HND holders in comparison with Bachelor’s degree graduates at work is satisfactory, 1 respondents representing 1% said their smartness, turnout and general bearing is not satisfactory, while 12 respondents representing 13% said their smartness, turnout and general bearing is absolutely satisfactory.   Since the highest percentage of the respondents is 86% it can then be accepted that the smartness, turnout and general bearing of HND holders in comparison with Bachelor’s degree graduates is satisfactory.
Question 4:  What is your consideration of the HND holders’ ability to work successfully with others (Teamwork spirit)?
Table 5:  Responses on the HND holders’ ability to work successfully with others.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Very high
40
44%
b.
High
50
56%
c.
Low
0
0%

From the table above, 40 respondents representing 44% considered the HND holders’ ability to work successfully with others Very High, 50 respondents representing 33% considered their ability to work successfully with others High, while none of the respondents representing 56% considered their ability of teamwork, low.  Since the highest percentage of respondents is 56%, it their ability of teamwork is said to be considered high.
Question 5:  What would you say of the HND holders’ power of expression and general knowledge when compared to other fellow University graduates?
Table 6:  Responses on the HND holders’ power of expression and general knowledge when compared their fellow University graduates.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Good
10
11%
b.
Very good
50
56%
c.
Excellent
30
33%
d.
Very poor
0
0%

From the above table, 10 respondents representing 11% said the power of expression and general knowledge of the HND holders compared when compared to their fellow University graduates good, 50 respondents representing 56% said their power of expression and general knowledge is very good, 30 respondents representing 33% said their power of expression is excellent, while none of the respondents representing 0% said their power of expression is very poor.  Since the highest percentage of the respondents is 56% it can then be said the power of expression and general knowledge of the HND holders is very good.
Research Question 2
What are the causes of disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Question 6:  Do you think the failure of the polytechnics’ academic staff to attain high educational qualification contributes to discrimination between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Table 7:  Responses on whether failure of the polytechnics’ academic staff to attain higher educational qualification contributes to the discrimination between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
85
94%
b.
No
0
0%
c.
Not certain
5
6%

From the above table, 85 respondents representing 94% said yes the failure of the polytechnics’ academic staff to attain high educational qualification contributes to the discrimination between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates, no body said no and none of the respondents representing 0% said they are not sure.  Since 94% is the highest respondents it can be concluded that the failure of the polytechnics’ staff to attain higher educational qualification contributes to the discrimination between the two products of the two sub sectors of education.
Question 7:  Are inadequacies in the facilities for the programmes such as special laboratories and workshops compared with the ones of the universities a reason for the dichotomy between the HND/Bachelor’s?
Table 8:  Responses on whether inadequacies in the facilities for the programmes such as special laboratories and workshops the reason for the dichotomy between the HND/Bachelor’s.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
85
94%
b.
No
2
2%
c.
Not certain
3
4%

From the table, 85 respondents representing 94% said yes the inadequacies  in the facilities for the programmes such as special laboratories and workshops compared with the ones of the universities a reason for the dichotomy between the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates, 2 respondents representing 2%  said No,  while 3 respondents representing 4% said they are not certain.  Finally, it can be said the lack of inadequacies in the facilities for the programmes is a reason for the dichotomy between HND/bachelor’s Degree graduates.
Question 8:  Is it the misperception by some employers that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school, the reason for the current dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Table 9:  Responses on whether misperception by some employers that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school, the reason for the current dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
60
67%
b.
No
20
22%
c.
Not certain
10
11%

From the table above, 60 respondents representing 67% said the misperception by some employers of labour that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school, the reason for the current dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates, 20 of the  respondents representing 22% said it is not the misperception of the employers that technical education is form those who fail to do well in school, the reason for the current dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates while 10 respondents representing 11% said they are not sure.  Since 67% is the highest percentage of the respondents, it can finally be deduced that dichotomy between the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates is as a result of the misperception by some employers that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school.
Question 9:  Could you tick that the merging of technical secondary schools with polytechnics under the same umbrella – NBTE is the reason for the disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market?
Table 10:  Responses on whether merging of technical secondary schools with polytechnics under the same umbrella – NBTE the reason for the disparity between HND /Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
 70
78%
b.
No
10
11%
c.
Not certain
10
11%

From the above table, 70 respondents representing 78% ticked yes, that the merging of technical secondary schools with polytechnics under the same umbrella – NBTE the reason for the disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degrees graduates in the labour market, 10 respondents representing 11% ticked that it is not the merging of the technical secondary schools under the same umbrella the reason for the disparity between HND/Bachelor’s, while 10 respondents representing 11% said they are not certain.  Since, 78% is the highest percentage of the respondents it is accepted that the merging of technical secondary schools with polytechnics under the same umbrella – NBTE the reason for the disparity between the HND/bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market.
Question 10:  Is it the failure of the Federal Government to implement the white paper regarding the harmonization of the wages and career advancement of HND and Bachelor’s degree certificate holders helping to the discrimination of the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Table 11:  Responses on the failure of the Federal Government to implement the white paper regarding the harmonization of the wages and career advancement of HND and Bachelor’s degree certificate holders helps to the discrimination of the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
86
96%
b.
No
0
0%
c.
Not certain
4
4%

From the above table, 86 respondents representing 96% said the failure of the Federal Government to implement the white pager regarding the harmonization of the wages and career advancement of HND and Bachelor’s degree certificate helps to the discrimination of the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates, nobody said no, while 4 respondents representing 4% said they are not sure.  Since, the highest respondents is 96% it can be finalized that  it is the failure of the Federal Government to implement the white paper regarding the harmonization of the wages and career advancement of the HND and Bachelor’s degree certificate holders that helps to the discrimination of the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates.
Question 11:  Could you say the current situation in which authorities of the polytechnics prefer employing Bachelor’s degree holders as lecturers to the HND holders a contributor to the dichotomy between them?
Table 12:  Responses on whether the current situation in which the authorities of the polytechnics prefer employing Bachelor’s degree holders as lecturers to the HND holders, a contributor to the dichotomy between them.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
89
99%
b.
No
1
1%
c.
Not certain
0
0%

From the above table, 89% respondents said the current situation in which authorities of the polytechnics prefer employing Bachelor’s degree holders as lecturers to the HND holders is a contributor to the dichotomy between them, 1 respondent representing 1% said it is not, while none of the respondents answers uncertainty. Since 99% is the highest percentage of the respondents, it can be agreed that the current situation where the polytechnic authorities prefer employing Bachelor’s degree holders as lecturers to the HND holders is a contributor to the dichotomy.
Question 12:  Does the situation where some National Polytechnics are not given the operational autonomy to offer degree level programmes a reason for the dichotomy between the HND and the Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Table 13:  Responses on whether the situation where some National Polytechnics are not given the operational autonomy to offer degree level programmes a reason for the dichotomy between the HND and the Bachelor’s degree graduates.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes
87
97%
b.
No
0
0%
c.
Not certain
3
3%





From the above table, 87 respondents representing 97% said the reason for the dichotomy is the situation where some National Polytechnics are not given the operational autonomy to offer degree level programmes, is a reason for the dichotomy between HND and the Bachelor’s degree graduates, no respondents chose no and 3 respondents representing 3% said not certain. It can be ruled that the current situation in where some National Polytechnics are not given the operational autonomy to offer degree level programmes is a major contributor to reason for the dichotomy.
Research Question 3
What are the possible lasting solutions to this undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
Question 12: Which of the following measures will you advocate for the prevention of discrimination in an organizational setting?
Table 14:  Responses on the measures for the prevention of workplace discrimination in an organizational setting?
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Making of law against acts of discrimination
20
22%
b.
Execution of penalty on employment discrimination
10
11%
c.
All of the above
65
72%

From the above table, 20 respondents representing 22% advocated making of the law against acts of discrimination as a measure for the prevention of discrimination in an organizational setting, 10 respondents representing 11% advocated execution of penalty on employment as the measure for the prevention of discrimination in an organizational setting, while 65 respondents representing 72% advocated making of law against acts of discrimination and execution of penalty on employment discrimination as a measure to prevent workplace discrimination.  From the analysis, since 72% is the highest percentage of respondents, it can be concluded that making of law against acts of discrimination and execution of penalty on employment discrimination are said to be the measures that can prevent workplace discrimination.
Question 13:  Which of the following suggestions could be the way forward to reducing the existing undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s holders in Nigeria’s labour market?
Table 15:  Responses on the way forward to reducing the existing undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor degree graduates in Nigeria’s labour market.


Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Scrapping of polytechnic HND and conversion of polytechnics to a Bachelor of Technology awarding institutions.
10
11%
b.
Government should review its policy in favour of the victims of discrimination so as to ensure equal treatment between HND/Bachelor’s holders
10
11%
c.
Government in collaboration with concerned regulatory bodies should introduce research-based courses like medicine, pharmacy, etc into the polytechnic system of education.
7
8%
d.
The polytechnics’ academic staff should acquire and include more Ph.D. and professors.
10
11%
e.
Educational facilities of the polytechnics should be upgraded to a university standard.


7
8%
f.
All of the above
46
51%

From the above table, 10 respondents representing 11% suggested that scrapping of polytechnic HND and conversion of polytechnics to a Bachelor of Technology awarding institutions, 10 respondents representing 11% suggested that government should review its policy in favour of the victims of discrimination so as to ensure equal treatment between HND/Bachelor’s holders, 7 respondents representing 8% suggested that government in collaboration with concerned regulatory bodies should introduce research-based course like medicine, pharmacy, etc into the polytechnic system of education, 10 respondents representing 11% suggested that the polytechnics’ academic staff should acquire and include more Ph.D. and professors, 1 respondent suggested that educational facilities of the polytechnics should be upgraded to a university standard, while 46 respondents representing 51% suggested all of the above.  Since the highest percentage of the respondents is 51% it is therefore  accepted that scrapping of the polytechnic HND and conversion of polytechnics to a Bachelor of Technology awarding institutions, government should review its policy in favour of the victims of discrimination so as to ensure equal treatment between HND/Bachelor’s holders, the government in collaboration with concerned regulatory bodies should introduce research-based courses like medicine, pharmacy, etc into the polytechnic education, as these will help reduce the undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates.
Question 14: What do you think should be used as a yardstick for assessing employees’ performance in regards to reducing the industrial dichotomy?
Table 16:  Responses on the yardstick to be used for assessment of employees’ performance.
Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Qualification
5
6%
b.
Practical capability
10
11%
c.
Performance indices
15
17%
d.
Theoretical capability
5
6%
e.
All of the above
45
50%

From the above table, 5 respondents representing 6% thought that qualification should be used as the yardstick for assessing employees’ performance in regards to reducing the industrial dichotomy, 10 respondents representing 11% said practical capability should be used, 15 respondents representing 17% thought performance indices as the yardstick for assessing employees’ performance in regards to reducing the industrial dichotomy, 5 respondents representing 6% chose theoretical capability to be used for measuring the performance of an employee while 45 respondents representing 50% chose all of the above. It can then be deduced that qualification, practical and theoretical capability and performance indices are thought to be the best yardsticks for assessing employees’ performance.
Question 15:  Do you think a bachelor’s/HND holders should be treated equally and why?



Options
Variables
Respondents
Percentage
a.
Yes, because it also takes four/five years to acquire HND degree
10
11%
b.
No, because polytechnics pay little importance to the one-year IT being received by ND holders.
5
6%
c.
Yes, because both HND and Bachelor’s degree holders discharge similar duties/functions in their respective institutions/organisations/
Ministries
15
17%
d.
No, because the BSc or BA holders are from a more challenging and research-based academic environment.
8
7%
e.
Yes, because HND holders are both practically and theoretically equipped while Bachelor’s are only theoretically oriented.
5
6%
f.
A, c and e
47
52%
Table 17:  Responses on whether Bachelor’s degree holders and HND holders should be treated equally and why?

From the table above, 10 respondents representing 11% that Bachelor’s degree holders and HND holders should be treated equally because it also takes four/five years to acquire HND degree, 5 respondents representing 6% said that Bachelor’s degree and HND holders should not be treated equally because polytechnics pay little importance to the one-year IT being received by ND holders, 15 respondent representing 17% said they should be treated equally because they both discharge similar duties/functions in their respective institutions/organisation/ministries, 8  respondents representing 7% said they should not be treated equally because the BSc or BA holders are from a more challenging and research-based academic environment, 5 respondents representing 6% said they should be treated equally because HND holders are both practically and theoretically equipped while Bachelor’s are only theoretically oriented, while 47 respondents representing 52% chose a, c and e options.  Since the highest percentage of the respondents is 52% it is accepted that HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates should be treated equally because:  it also takes four/five years to acquire HND degree, both HND and Bachelor’s degree holders discharge similar duties/functions in their respective institutions/organisations/ministries; HND are both practically and theoretically equipped while Bachelor’s are only theoretically oriented.
4.3       Discussion of Results
Based on the analysis of the data, table one explained that 90 questionnaires were distributed, proper filled and returned, that is, 100% return.  Table two showed that HND holders are more practically inclined than their university counterpart with highest response of 89%.  Table three revealed that the general conduct of HND holders during and after working hours is ok with highest response of 67%.  Table four showed that the smartness, turnout and general bearing of HND holders at work are satisfactory with percentage response of 86.  Table five indicated that the ability of the HND holders to work as a team is high with the 84% highest percentage of respondents.  Table six indicated that the power of expression and general knowledge of the HND holders is very good with a 56% highest response.  Table seven explained that the failure of the polytechnics staff to attain higher educational qualification as their university colleagues contributes to the discrimination between their products and that of their colleagues at the university with 94% of the respondents in favour of that.   From table eight it can be seen that the lack of inadequacies in the facilities for the programmes in the polytechnics is another contributor for the dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree holders with 94% respondents agreeing to that. In Table nine 67% respondents agreed that the misperception of some employers that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school.  Table ten revealed that merging of technical secondary schools with polytechnics under the same umbrella – NBTE contributes to the dichotomy with 78% respondents in acceptance.  In table eleven, the analysis revealed that the failure of the Federal Government to implement the white paper on the harmonization of the wages and career advancement of the HND and Bachelor’s degree certificate holders has a helping hand in the discrimination between them with 96% of the respondents in agreement.  Table twelve showed that the Polytechnic regulatory body – NBTE is also a participant in the discrimination of the polytechnic products in the labour market in situation where they prefer employing Bachelor’s degree graduates to HND holders as lecturers with 99% respondents agreeing to that.  Table thirteen also revealed that the restriction of some National Polytechnics to offer degree level programmes is a reason for the discrimination of between the products of the Polytechnic and that of the University in the labour market with 97% respondents agreeing to that.  Table fourteen, revealed that to curb the discrimination between the HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates, laws should be made against the acts of discrimination and execution of penalty on employment with 72% respondents saying yes to that.  In the same vein, table fifteen revealed that to minimize the dichotomy between them (HND/Bachelor’s degree holders) the HND should be scrapped and replaced with B.Tech., government should review its policy in favour of the victims of the discrimination, government should also in collaboration with concerned regulatory bodies introduce research based courses like, medicine, pharmacy, education, etc in to the polytechnic system, the educational facilities of polytechnic should be upgraded to university standard and the polytechnic academic staff should acquire and include more Ph.D. and professors. In table sixteen, 50% of the respondents suggested that qualification, practical capability, theoretical capability and performance indices should be used as yardsticks in measuring the performance of employees.  Table seventeen finally showed that highest percentage 52 suggested that the HND and Bachelor’s degree holders should be treated equally because the discharge similar duties in their respective workplaces as this will help in reducing the dichotomy between them.



CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1       Introduction
This research work focuses on the analysis of the disparity between Higher National Diploma and Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market.  This chapter deals with the summary of the entire research work done from chapter one to four.  The conclusions and recommendation will be made here based on the findings of this work.
5.2       Re-statement of the Problem
Despite the contribution of technology in the meaningful and economic development of which polytechnic is the basis; yet its products are discriminated in favour of their University counterpart.
The ceiling and all forms of dichotomy, discrimination and stagnation in career progression between Higher National Diploma (HND) and First Degree holders have eaten deep into the fabrics of Nigeria’s labour market.
It is not surprising that HND holders in Nigeria are not at par with B.Sc.  or B.A. holders in most Ministries and parastatals, especially at job progression where HND holders are placed on the ceiling of salary grade level 13 while their University counterpart can go as high as to the peak.
It is also evident that Nigeria’s Universities do not accept HND as one of the entry qualifications into Master’s Degree, unless it is backed up by Post Graduate Diploma (PGD), while First Degree is accepted for direct entry to study Second Degree programmes.  Similarly, an HND holder cannot not rise up to the level of Permanent Secretary in most Ministries until his/her qualification is supported by Post Graduate Diploma. 
Also, there has been the misperception by employers of labour that HND is for those who fail to do well in school as a result they prefer employing First Degree holders to HND holders.  This non recognition of this skilled labour in this country will bring the nation on its knees as the importance of polytechnic system of education can not be overemphasized as such they deserve a place of priority. 
Therefore, the researchers decided to carry out a research to analyse the causes of causes of disparity between the HND and Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market with the following objectives:  to find out the employers’ evaluation of the performance of HND holders and Bachelor’s degree graduates at work, to ascertain the employers’ view of the causes of disparity between HND and Bachelor’s degree holders and to verify the employers’ view of the possible lasting solutions to this undue dichotomy between them. 
5.3       Summary of Findings
The result obtained was based on the analysis of the research questions using simple percentage.  It was discovered based on the research question one, that the HND holders are said to be evaluated as more practically inclined and capable, with satisfactory general conduct during and after working hours, with satisfactory smartness and general bearing with high team  spirit and very good power of expression and general knowledge. 
Research question two, revealed the following reasons/causes of the disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates: failure of the polytechnic academic staff to acquire higher educational qualification, inadequacies of the teaching facilities for the programmes run in the polytechnic system, the misperception by some employers that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school and as such pay more preference to employing First Degree graduates, NBTE lack of discipline by preferring to employ the University Graduates as lecturers to HND holders, the delay of the federal government to implement the white paper regarding the harmonization of wages and career advancement of the HND/Bachelor’s degree certificate holders, the merging of the polytechnic under the same regulatory body – National Board For Technical Education and the situation where some polytechnics are not given the full  operational and autonomous  power to run degree level programmes.
Research question three, based on the analysis suggested the following possible solutions to the undue dichotomy:  making of law against acts of discrimination and execution of penalty on any employment discrimination, Government should revisit its policy in favour of the victims of discrimination, scrapping of the HND and converting the suitable polytechnics into a B.Tech. awarding institutions, Government in collaboration with concerned agencies should introduce research based courses, like education, Medicine, Pharmacy, etc, the polytechnic academic staff to borrow a leaf from the university counterparts by attaining higher education qualifications such as Ph.D and should include professors;  the educational facilities of the polytechnic should be upgraded to university standard, and the performance of employees should be measured based of practical, theoretical capabilities, qualification and performances index.
5.4              Conclusion
The polytechnic education otherwise known as vocational and technical education is the medium for technological drive in country like Nigeria.  The benefits of polytechnic education cannot be overemphasized.  It provides technical knowledge, industrial, commercial and economic development.  It provides qualified and well-equipped personnel to apply scientific knowledge to the improvement and solution of environmental problems for use and convenience of man. 
It is also essential for the provision of training to impart the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technician, technologists and engineers and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self-reliant.
Polytechnic education may seem to be less important in the short run but in the long run it shall be the necessary tool for technological advancement and development.
Technology is the backbone of any meaningful and economic growth, and increased standard of living but the discrimination and stagnation posed on its products limit their contributions.
5.5       Recommendation
Based on the analysis of this study the following, recommendations are made:
  • There should be appropriate design of the curriculum of the polytechnic and content of B.Tech. programme and uniformity of entry requirements, as well as acceleration of the programmes and qualification by regulatory and professional bodies;
  • An appropriate legislative framework should be put in place to enable suitable polytechnics award Bachelor of Technology, and ensure the relevance of the programme to specific needs of industries and economy, as well as national development objectives
  • The Office of Head of Service of the Federation should proceed to issue implementation of the delayed Government decision on the parity between HND and First Degree graduates in accordance with the recommendation of the stakeholders meeting held in April, 2008 as in respect of Technological and related cadres, including Health Care sectors.
  • A new nomenclature for HND holders in the public service and private organizations structured grade level 08-17 should be created.
  • Writers of school textbooks should, wherever possible, include in their materials which would impress upon the young Nigerians the dignity of vocational and technical education and instil a sense of pride in the polytechnic education.
  • Those facilities for training of Polytechnics’ students should be expanded and that research-based courses like pharmacy, medicine, etc should also be introduced into the polytechnic academic environment.
  • Those Polytechnic lecturers should be no less qualified and should strive to have equal status with their colleagues in the universities.  And they should also be given the opportunity to upgrade their skills and increase their competence by attaining high educational qualification.
  • That the Syllabi of the Polytechnic Education  from National Diploma to Higher National Diploma should be developed in greater details and be upgraded to the university standard.
  • That the existing disparity of the standard of entry into the master’s degree between HND and Bachelor’s degree in the Nigerian Universities should be removed and replaced by a uniform minimum standard.
  • That the confusion arising from the non-recognition of the HND as being equivalent in terms of  employment  and career advancement in some institutions should be clarified.
  • That seminars and refreshers courses should be arranged for lecturers in polytechnics at regular intervals at the National Lecturers’ Institute Centres nationwide in order to increase their professional knowledge and pedagogical techniques.
  • That any efforts on the part of the industry to develop new training approaches by operating pilot projects in their own training schools for vocational and technical lecturers should be encouraged.
  • That new and improved condition of service, and remuneration better than at present in practice, should be defined for polytechnics’ academic staff and non-academic staff.
5.6              Suggestion for Further Research
There is a need to carry out further research on the following areas:
·         The need for continuous modernization of technical education for national technological drive,
·         Analysis of the role of government and its agencies in removing discrepancies in the educational sectors.



REFERENCES
Abubakar (2010). Importance of Technical Education, ATBU.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi (2006).  Students’ Handbook.

Aderinto (2006).  Economics for Senior Secondary Schools. Africana First
Publishers, Lagos..

Brodhead, C.W. (2010). A Vision for Vocational Education, Journal 62, No. 8,
Pg. 10.

Deitch and Hammed (2010). The Disparity between HND and BSc in Nigeria.
Internet.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2007).  Academic Degrees and their Abbreviatios

Encarta Premium (2009). Classification of Degrees.

Enemali (2006).  Lecture Notes, ATBU.

Eke-Opara, E.O (2010). Important facts in Engineering Profession and
         Development, Design and Build Artisans Co. Eltico, Owerri.

Ezekweseli in the Punch (2006), Consolidation of Polytechnics will create
        500,000 Spaces by Adelani Adpegba, published Friday, 24 November, 2006.

Farooq, K. in Weekly Trust (2010).  Parity of Esteem Between Polytechnics
        and University.

Federal Polytechnic Bauchi (2008).  Students’ Handbook. Muhammad Wabi
       Library, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Reprinted 2008.

Guest Writer (2008), SOS to the Late President and Commander In Chief of
      the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Alhaji Umaru Musa Yar’adua:  University Degree 
      and HND    disparity in Nigeria Civil Service.

Hammed (2001). The importance of skills acquisition to society. Internet.

Idi (1998).  Skill Acquisition. Unpublished.

Inwang, I.I. (2000), Technical Education and Training in Nigeria: Development from 1900 to 
       the  present, Helimo Associates, Calabar.

Lawan  in Daily Trust(2006). The Contribution of HND in nation building.

National Policy on Education (2004).Federal Government of Nigeria.

NTI (2006), Lecture Notes.

Obsorne (1998). National Lecturers’ Institute Manual.

Okoro (1993).  Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria. University
Press: Akure.

Oyedeji (1993), Educational Evaluation. Internet.

Paper Presented by the then NATE National President , Sir Leo Okereke at
NATEAGM (2009).  The removal of Undue Dichotomy and Ceiling Attainable by HND holders in Public Service.

Silberman, H.F (1986). Improving the Status of High Vocational Education,
Educational Horizon 65, No. 1, pg. 5-9.

Tonad (2009) Importance of Science and Technology in National
Development. Tonad Publishers Ltd, Ikeja.

Thornlike in Garba (1996). Law of exercise.

UNESCO Publication (2008).  Technical and Vocational Education.

Webster (2010) Technology in School Curriculum.

Yalams (2001).  Lecture Notes.  Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

APPENDIX
DEPARTMENT OF OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
SCHOOL OF BUSINESS STUDIES
FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI
P.M.B. 0231
BAUCHI

Dear Sir/Madam,

Questionnaire

We are final year students of the above school.  We are conducting a research on “Analysis of the causes of disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market.”

Your co-operation in answering questions in this questionnaire – meant purely for academic purpose, will be highly appreciated.

Be assured that any information given shall be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Please, tick in the box provided and fill in where applicable and necessary.

Thank you.

Sunday Habila,
Bashir A. Mohammed
(RESEARCHERS)





QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION ONE

Personal Data
YOUR DEPARTMENT……………………………………………………………
SEX…………………………..
1.      How long have you been in service in this ministry/institution?
(a)    0-15
(b)   16-31
(c)    32-57
(d)   58 and above
2.      What was your entry qualification into the job?
(a)    General Certificate of Education
(b)   National Certificate of Education 
(c)    National Diploma
(d)   Higher National Diploma
(e)    Bachelor’s Degree
3.      What is your status/rank/position?
(a)    Director
(b)   Permanent Secretary
(c)    Others
4.      Which of the ranges does your Salary Grade Level fall in?
(a)    04–07
(b)   08-11
(c)    12 and above
SECTION TWO
Research Question 1
What are the employers’ evaluations of HND holders and Bachelor’s degree graduates performance at work?
1.      Are HND holders more practically able and capable than their University counterpart?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
2.      What would you say of the HND holders’ general conduct during and after working hours compared to their counterpart from the University?
(a)    OK
(b)   Partially OK         
(c)    Absolutely OK
3.      What would you say of the smartness, turnout and general bearing of HND holders in comparison with Bachelor’s degree graduates at work?
(a)    Satisfactory
(b)   Not satisfactory
(c)    Absolutely satisfactory
4.      What is your consideration of the HND holders’ ability to work successfully with others (team spirit)?
(a)    Very high
(b)   High
(c)    Low
5.      What would you say of the HND holders’ power of expression and general knowledge?
(a)    Good
(b)   Very good
(c)    Excellent
(d)   Very poor


Research question 2
What are the causes of disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
6.      Do you think the failure of the polytechnics’ academic staff to attain high educational qualification contributes to discrimination between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
7.      Are inadequacies in the facilities for the programmes such as special laboratories and workshops compared with the ones of the universities a reason for the dichotomy between the HND/Bachelor’s?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
8.      Is it the misperception by some employers that technical education is for those who fail to do well in school, the reason for the current dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degrees?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
9.       Could you tick that the merging of technical secondary schools with polytechnics under the same umbrella – NBTE is the reason for the disparity between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates in the labour market?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
10.  Is it the failure of the Federal Government to implement the white paper regarding the harmonization of wages and career advancement of HND and bachelor’s Degree certificate holders helping to the discrimination of the HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
11.  Could you say the current situation in which authorities of the polytechnics prefer employing Bachelor’s degree holders as lecturers to the HND holders a contributor to the dichotomy between them?
(a)    Yes
(b)   No
(c)    Not certain
12.  Does the situation where some National Polytechnics are not giving the operational autonomy to offer degree level programmes a reason for the dichotomy between the HND and the Bachelor’s degree graduates?
(a)       Yes
(b)        No
(c)        Not certain
Research Question 3
What are the possible lasting solutions to this undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s degree graduates?
13.  Which of the following measures will you advocate for the prevention of discrimination in an organizational setting?
(a)    Making of law against acts of discrimination
(b)   Execution of penalty on employment discrimination
(c)    All of the above
14.  Which of the following suggestions could be the way forward to reducing the existing undue dichotomy between HND/Bachelor’s holders in Nigeria’s labour market?
(a)    Scrapping of polytechnic HND and conversion of polytechnics to a Bachelor of Technology awarding institutions.
(b)   Government should review its policy in favour of the victims of discrimination so as to ensure equal treatment between HND/Bachelor’s holders.
(c)    Government in collaboration with concerned regulatory bodies should introduce research-based courses like medicine, pharmacy, etc into the polytechnic system of education.
(d)   The polytechnics’ academic staff should acquire and include more Ph.D. and professors.
(e)    Educational facilities of the polytechnics should be upgraded to a university standard.
(f)    All of the above.
15.  What do you think should be used as a yardstick for assessing employee’s performance in regards to reducing the industrial dichotomy?
(a)    Qualification
(b)   Practical capability
(c)    Theoretical capability
(d)   Performance indices
(e)    All of the above
16.  Do you think a bachelor’s/HND holders should be treated equally and why?
(a)    Yes, because it also takes four/five years to acquire HND degree
(b)   No, because polytechnics pay little importance to the one-year IT being received by ND holders.
(c)    Yes, because both HND and Bachelor’s degree holders discharge similar duties/functions in their respective institutions/organisations/ministries.
(d)   No, because the BSc holders are from a more challenging and a research-based academic environment.
(e)    Yes, because HND are both practically and theoretically equipped while Bachelor’s are only theoretically oriented.
(f)    a, c and e


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